ai: kyōgen actor who retells the plot during the interlude between the first and second acts of many noh plays

aioi: term describing two distant pine trees in the noh play Takasago as paired or even married

atarashii kankan: “new sense-sense” coined by the writer Ryütanji Yū to describe the feeling of modanizumu in Japan

au: noh songs in which the chant and drums are rhythmically matched

awazu: noh songs in which the chant and drums are rhythmically independent rather than matched

Ayame-kai: international literary society which Noguchi Isamu founded to promote modernism in Japan

benshi or katsuben: the film narrator who stood or knelt to the left of the screen in full view of the audience and interpreted the film

budō: the samurai warrior arts

bunraku: puppet theater

bushido: a term for the austere samurai warrior code in Tokugawa Japan; also the title of an Edo period play reinterpreted by Ito Michio for the Washington Square Players

butoh: a modern form of Japanese dance that features extreme tension throughout the body

chado: tea ceremony

chigo: adolescent acolytes of Buddhist priests

Chigo monogatari (tales of acolytes): a popular literary form that emphasized a monk’s physical and spiritual relationship with the chigo

daimyo: Japanese feudal lord

doji: temple acolyte; the Cherry Sweeper in Tamura

Domonkai: the school of modern dance Ito Michio founded in Japan

eboshi: a formal Japanese hat

fushi-zuke: noh chant composition

Gagaku: Japanese court music

giri: ancient codes of honor followed by samurai warriors

hashigakari: a bridgeway extending from the noh stage for the entrance of performers

hashira: the pillars in each of the four corners of the square noh stage

hayashi: noh orchestra

higashi: decorated confectionery; often eaten during the Japanese tea ceremony

hiranori: one of the most common rhythmic structures in noh; the (usually) twelve syllables of poetry are distributed over an eight-beat rhythmic pattern

hokubun: a full-ranked performer of noh

hosonuno: a narrow cloth made of woven feathers that symbolizes unrequited love in Nishikigi

iemoto: leader or family head of the schools of Japanese performing arts

issei: a noh verse pattern typically sung during the entrance of the shite

jidaigeki: films about samurai of the Edo period

jiutai: noh chorus of eight to ten performers who kneel stage left

Jiyū Gekijō: Free Theater founded in 1909 for the purpose of staging western dramas

kabuki: Japanese dance-drama influenced by noh

kagura: sacred dance; performed in Takasago to celebrate a perfect sovereign

kakagoe: drum calls performed by noh drummers

kakeai: noh dialogue or recitative sung in unmatched rhythm

kakikurasu: tormented/darkened

kamae: posture or stance of the noh actor; pelvis tipped forward, knees bent, upper body strong

kana: Japanese written characters

kata: standard forms in Japanese arts; in noh, the gestural sequences and established drum patterns
katazuke: choreography

Kawanakajima: location of the legendary battle of the Takeda and Uesugi samurai clans in 1561

kenbu: Japanese sword dance

kensho: the configuration of the noh auditorium with audience seating on three sides of the stage

kiri: in noh, the closing section of a play

kitsune: legendary Japanese fox

kokata: child actor in noh; the role of an emperor or highly ranked official is often performed by a kokata
koken: stage assistants who kneel at the back of the noh stage

kokorogake: the “mental attitude” associated with the instruction in samurai warrior arts (budō)

kotsuzumi: noh shoulder drum

Kuannon: Sino-Japanese spirit of mercy

kuden: tradition

kurogo: “man-in-black;” a stage assistant who is considered “invisible” in kabuki
kyakurai: “the effect of doubling back”; Zeami uses the term to refer to an enlightened return to the yūgen of boyhood

kyōgen: comedic plays, often staged as interludes between noh plays

mai: dance

mie or kimaru: codified poses struck at emotional moments during a kabuki play

Miho no Matsubara:  pine grove at Miho Bay; setting of Hagoromo

mo: “no or not”

modanizumu: movement advocating original artistic expression and a source of popular fashion in Japan in the early 1900’s; term derived from modernism

mondō: prose dialogue in noh

monoguruimono: fourth category noh plays about mad people

montsuki: formal Japanese attire, worn in informal noh performances

Mukei Bunkazai Sōgō Shitei: “Intangible Cultural Property Holder”

mugen noh: dream play

naga-bakama: long trousers

naginata: long blade; carried by the Young Man/Cuchulain in Theatre Nohgaku’s At the Hawk’s Well

nanori: a naming verse that introduces the noh character

natori: stage title or name; surname is typically the name of the school

nihon buyo: traditional Japanese dance

Nihon Nōgakukai: Japanese Noh Society

Nihon Puroretaria Geijutsu Renmei: Japan League of Proletarian Arts

nimaime: “second” performer in kabuki, typically a good-hearted but flawed romantic character

Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkōkai: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science

nishikigi: “brocade trees” or decorated sticks that serve as love charms

nōkan or fue: noh flute in the orchestra or hayashi

oi-matsu: a large pine tree painted on the back wall of the theatre

omiai: traditional arranged meeting or marriage

ōmugaeshi: “parrot-like repetition;” imitative pedagogy used in noh lessons

onna mai: in nihon buyo, “female dances”

otoko mai: in nihon buyo, “male dances”
ōtsuzumi: noh hip drum

ōzayū: zigzag stepping pattern in noh

rensageki: chain dramas juxtaposing filmed kabuki scenes and live performance

Ryōan-ji: famous rock garden in Kyoto

ryū: schools or guilds (there are five in noh)

sashi koye (sashi-koe): a “flow-along tune;” a type of noh sashi sung in a smooth manner

sayū: a common kata for concluding a noh dance

seiza: kneeling with legs folded beneath your body and buns resting on heels

sensei: master or teacher

sensu: small folding fans

seppuku(o): ritual death

shigin: style of reciting classical poems

shikake-hiraki: common noh kata; step forward with arm point then backward step as arms open

shikisanban: three rites; noh plays that are particularly sacred and traditionally require performers to engage in a period of “purification”

shiori: weeping gesture in noh, hand moves toward eye

shimai: noh dance

shingeki: Japanese modern theater or “new drama”

Shinkyo Gekidan: New Cooperative Theater Company

shite: central actor or soloist in noh

shōdan: a sung verse pattern in noh

shōshimingeki: films about ordinary people in modern Japan

shudō: “the way of (loving) youths” (not to be misunderstood as a sexual identity)

shūgen: a “congratulatory play” used at the beginning and end of the full noh sequence

suriashi: noh walking technique; literally “sliding foot”

taiko: stick drum

taiyu: master actor

tanka: Japanese poetic form similar to haiku but with two additional lines of seven syllables

tateyaku: “standing role” or leading man in a kabuki play

tennin: celestial spirit or angel; in Hagoromo, the angel from the palace of the moon

Tessenkai: a performance group with the Kanze school of noh

tōitsu imeiji: “unifying image”

Tokugawa bakufu: rulers during the Edo period (1600-1867)

Tsukiji Shōgekijo: or Tsukiji Little Theater; often cited as “Japan’s First Modern Theater”

tsukizerifu: a noh verse announcing “we have arrived”

tsukurimono: literally “built thing;” stage properties in noh

tsure: companion

ukiyoe: Japanese wood prints

utaibon: books for chanting noh text or libretto

utai: noh chant

wagashi: delicate confectionary traditionally served with tea

wakashu: the apprentices of samurai/nenja

waki: the watcher or witness role in noh; often a traveling monk

wakizure: companion of the waki

yūgen: the profound, mysterious, and elegant beauty associated with noh
Zō-onna mask: worn by young women and divinities in noh