ai: kyōgen actor who retells the story during the interlude of noh

benshi or katsuben: film narrator who stood or knelt to the left of the screen in full view of the audience and interpreted the film

budō: samurai warrior arts

bunraku: Japanese puppet theater

bushido: term for the austere samurai warrior code in Edo or Tokugawa Japan; also the title of a play produced by the Washington Square Players in 1916

butoh: modern form of Japanese dance that features extreme bodily tension

chado: tea ceremony

chigo: adolescent acolytes of Buddhist priests

Chigo monogatari (tales of acolytes): literary form that emphasized a monk’s spiritual and physical relationship with the chigo

daimyo: Japanese feudal lord

doji: temple acolyte; the first apparition in the noh play Tamura

eboshi: formal Japanese hat

Gagaku: old court music

giri: ancient codes of honor followed by samurai warriors

hashigakari: bridgeway that extends roughly eight meters from stage right, used for the entrance of actors

hashira: the pillars in each of the four corners of the square noh stage

hayashi: noh orchestra

higashi: decorated confectionery

hiranori: common noh rhythmic structure in which the (usually) twelve syllables of poetry are distributed over an eight-beat pattern

hokubun: full-ranked performer of noh

hosonuno: a narrow cloth made of woven feathers that came to symbolize unrequited love

iemoto: family head of one of the five noh schools (ryū)

issei: ornate verse pattern (shōdan) typically sung by the entering shite

jidaigeki: films about samurai

jiutai: noh chorus of eight to ten performers who kneel stage left

Jiyū Gekijō: Free Theater founded in 1909 for the purpose of staging western dramas

kagura: sacred dance that, in Takasago, serves as a manifestation of the perfect sovereign

kaishi: thin paper

kakagoe: noh drum calls

kakikurasu: tormented/darkened

kamae or kitachi posture: standard posture of the noh performer; knees slightly bent, pelvis tipped forward, arms held forward and away from the body

kana: Japanese written characters

kata: precise movement patterns or gestural sequences in noh

Kawanakajima: location of the legendary battle of the Takeda and Uesugi samurai clans in 1561

kenbu: Japanese sword dance

kenkin noh: plays performed to benefit the war effort

kensho: audience configuration with seating on three sides of the noh stage

kiri: closing section of a noh play

kitsune: legendary Japanese fox

kokata: child actor

koken: stage assistants who kneel at the back of the noh stage

kokorogake: the “mental attitude” associated with the instruction in samurai warrior arts (budō)

kotsuzumi: shoulder drum in the noh orchestra or hayashi

Kuannon: Sino-Japanese spirit of mercy

kuden: tradition

kurogo: “man-in-black;” stage assistant who is “invisible” by Japanese performance conventions

kyakurai: “the effect of doubling back;” term used by Zeami for the enlightened return to the yūgen of boyhood

kyōgen: Japanese comedic plays that are often presented as interludes between noh plays and parody their style

mai: dance

mie or kimaru: codified poses struck at emotional moments during a kabuki play

mo: “no” or “not”

modanizumu: term derived from “modernism” that signaled a style of artistic expression, powerful idea about modernity, and source of popular fashion in Japan from roughly 1910-1940

monoguruimono: fourth category noh plays about mad people

montsuki: formal Japanese dress worn during informal noh performances

mugen noh: dream play

naga-bakama: long trousers

nanori: a naming verse typically used to introduce an actor

natori: “naming” or formal initiation in which the student usually receives an artistic tite with the school (ryū) as the family name

nihon buyo: classical Japanese dance

Nihon nōgakukai: Japanese Noh Society

nimaime: “second” or good-hearted but flawed romantic character in kabuki

Nippon Gakujutsu Shinkōkai: Japan Society for the Promotion of Science

nishikigi: “brocade trees” or decorated sticks that serve as love charms; title of a noh play

nōkan or fue: flute in the noh orchestra or hayashi

oi-matsu: large pine tree painted on the back wall of the noh theater

omiai: arranged meeting or marriage

omugaeshi: “parrot-like repetition;” imitative pedagogy of the noh lesson

onna mai: in nihon buyo, dances of women

otoko mai: dances of men

ōtsuzumi: hip drum in the noh orchestra or hayashi

ōzayū: zigzag stepping kata or noh movement form

rensageki: chain dramas or popular early Japanese films that juxtaposed live performances of kabuki with filmed scenes

ryū: schools or guilds dedicated to the study of Japanese arts; there are five such schools in noh

sashi koye (sashi-koe): “flow-along tune;” a type of sashi sung in a smooth manner

sayū: common kata for concluding a noh dance

seiza: kneeling with legs folded underneath the body, buns resting on heels

sensu: small folding fans

seppuku(o): ritual suicide

shigin: style of reciting classical poems

shikake-hiraki: common noh kata beginning with a forward step and point followed by a step back as arms open

shikisanban: “three rites;” plays considered particularly sacred that traditionally require performers to engage in a period of “purification”

shiori: kata for weeping; hand sweeps to corner of the eye

shimai: noh dance

shingeki: Japanese modern theater or “new drama”

Shinkyo Gekidan: New Cooperative Theater Company

shite: central actor or soloist in noh

shōdan: noh verse pattern or song

shōshimingeki: films about ordinary people in modern Japan

shudō: “the way of (loving) youths;” not to be misunderstood as a sexual identity

suriashi: “sliding foot;” the noh walking step

taiko: stick drum in the noh orchestra or hayashi

taiyu: master actor

tanka: similar to a haiku with two additional lines of seven syllables

tateyaku: “standing role” or leading man in a kabuki play

tennin: celestial spirit; in Hagoromo, the angel from the palace of the moon

tōitsu imeiji: “unifying image”

Tokugawa bakufu: rulers during the Edo or Tokugawa period (1600-1867)

Tsukiji Shōgekijo: Tsukiji Little Theater; often cited as “Japan’s First Modern Theater”

tsukizerifu: noh verse pattern announcing “we have arrived”

tsukurimono: “built thing;” noh stage properties usually made with wrapped bamboo and little attempt to look real

tsure: companion

ukiyoe: Japanese wood prints

utaibon: books of noh text or libretto

utai: noh chant

wagashi: delicate confectionary traditionally served with tea

wakashu: apprentices of samurai/nenja warriors

waki: witness role in noh, often a traveling monk

wakizure: companion(s) of the waki

yūgen: the profound, mysterious, and elegant beauty associated with noh

Zō-onna mask: noh worn by young women and divinities