HIV cascade of care

Beginning as early as 2007, researchers at BU pioneered some of the first work on the HIV cascade of care in Africa. We continue to conduct substantial research in this area, as indicated by the publications below.

Publications and other documents

Cassidy T, Cornell M, Makeleni B, Horsburgh CR, Duran LT, Azevedo V, Andrew Boulle A, Fox MP. Attrition from care among men initiating ART in male-only clinics compared with men in general primary healthcare clinics in Khayelitsha, South Africa: a matched propensity score analysis. AIDS and Behavior 2022;

Benade M, Maskew M, Juntunen A, Rosen S. Prior exposure to antiretroviral therapy among adult patients presenting for HIV treatment initiation or re-initiation in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review.

Huber AN, Pascoe S, Fox MP, Murphy J, Phokojoe M, Gorgens M, Rosen S, Wilson D, Pillay Y, Fraser-Hurt N. Leveraging routine data in impact evaluation: understanding data systems in primary health care prior to a matched cluster-randomized evaluation of adherence guidelines in South Africa. S Afr Med J 2022; 112(10):819-827.

Ballif M, Christ B, Anderegg N, Chammartin F, Muhairwe J, Jefferys L, Hector J, van Dijk J, Vinikoor MJ, van Lettow M, Chimbetete C, Phiri SJ, Onoya D, Fox MP, Egger M. Tracing people living with human immunodeficiency virus who are lost to follow-up at antiretroviral therapy programs in Southern Africa: A sampling-based cohort study in 6 countries. Clin Infect Dis. 2022 Jan 29;74(2):171-179. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciab428. PMID: 33993219.

Zaniewski E, Brazier E, Ostinelli CHD, Wood R, Osler M, Technau KG, van Oosterhout JJ, Maxwell N, van Dijk J, Prozesky H, Fox MP, Bor J, Nash D, Egger M. Regression discontinuity analysis demonstrated varied effect of Treat-All on CD4 testing among Southern African countries. J Clin Epidemiol. 2021 Sep 3;140:101-110. doi: 10.1016/j.jclinepi.2021.09.001. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34487837.

Onoya D, Hendrickson C, Sineke T, Maskew M, Long L, Bor J, Fox MP. Attrition in HIV care following HIV diagnosis: a comparison of the pre-UTT and UTT eras in South Africa. J Int AIDS Soc. 2021 Feb;24(2):e25652. doi: 10.1002/jia2.25652. PMID: 33605061; PMCID: PMC7893145.

Ehrenkranz P, Rosen S, Boulle A, Eaton J, Fox MP, Ford N, Grimsrud A, Rice BD, Sikazwe I, Holmes C. The revolving door of HIV care: Revising the care cascade to achieve the 95-95-95 goals. PLOS Med 2021; 18: e1003651.

Ford N, Geng E, Ellman T, Orrell C, Ehrenkranz P, Sikazwe I, Jahn A, Rabkin M, Addo S, Grimsrud A, Rosen S, et al. Emerging priorities for HIV service delivery. PLOS Med 2020; 17(2): e1003028.

Ahmed S, Autrey J, Fox MP, Katz IT, Rosen S, Onoya D, Barnighausen T, Mayer K, Bor J. Why do people living with HIV not initiate treatment? A systematic review of qualitative evidence from low- and middle-income countriesSoc Sci Med 2018; 213: 72-84.

Bor J, Chiu C, Ahmed S, Katz I, Fox MP, Rosen S, Yapa M, Tanser F, Pillay D, Bärnighausen T. Failure to initiate HIV treatment in patients with high CD4 counts: evidence from demographic surveillance in rural KwaZulu-Natal. Trop Med Int H 2018; 23: 206-20

Bor J, Fox MP, Rosen S, Venkataramani A, Tanser F, Pillay D, Barnighousen, T. Treatment eligibility and retention in clinical HIV care: A regression discontinuity study in South Africa. PLOS Med 2017; 14: e1002463.

Fox MP, Rosen S. A new cascade of HIV care for the era of “treat all.” PLOS Medicine 2017; 14: e1002268.

Bor J, Ahmed S, Fox MP, Rosen S, Meyer-Rath G, Katz I, Tanswer F, Pillay D, Bärnighausen T. Effect of eliminating CD4-count thresholds on HIV treatment initiation in South Africa: an empirical modeling study. PLoS One 2017; 12: e0178249.

Fox MP, Rosen S. Retention of adult patients on antiretroviral therapy in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review and meta-analysis 2008-2013. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2015; 69: 98-108.

Fox MP, Rosen S. Systematic review of retention of pediatric patients on antiretroviral therapy in low- and middle-income countries 2008-2013. AIDS 2015; 29 :493–502.

Fox MP, Larson B, Rosen S. Defining retention and attrition in pre-antiretroviral HIV care: proposals based on experience in Africa. Trop Med Int Health 2012; 17: 1235-44.

Rosen S, Fox M. Retention in HIV care between testing and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. PLOS Med 2011; 8: e1001056.

Fox MP, Rosen S. Patient retention in antiretroviral therapy programs up to three years on treatment in sub‐Saharan Africa, 2007‐2009; systematic review. Trop Med Int Health 2010; 15 Suppl 1: 1-15. PMID: 20586956

Larson BA, Brennan A, McNamara L, Long L, Rosen S, Sanne I, Fox MP. Early loss to follow up after enrollment in pre-ART care at a large public clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. Trop Med Int Health 2010; 15 Suppl 1: 43-47. PMID: 20586959

Miller C, Ketlhapile M, Rybasack H, Rosen S. Why are antiretroviral treatment patients lost to follow up? A qualitative study from South Africa. Trop Med Int Health 2010; 15 Suppl 1: 48-54. PMID: 20586960

Larson BA, Brennan A, McNamara L, Long L, Rosen S, Sanne I, Fox MP. Lost opportunities to complete CD4+ lymphocyte testing among patients who tested positive for HIV in South Africa. Bull World Health Organ 2010; 88: 675-80. PMID: 20865072

Harries AD, Zachariah R, Lawn SD, Rosen S. Strategies to improve patient retention on antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa. Trop Med Int Health 2010; 70-75. PMID: 20586963

Rosen S, Fox M, Gill CG. Patient retention in antiretroviral therapy programs in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review. PLoS Medicine 2007; 4(10): e298. PMID: 17941716