47. Wheeler, D.; Tannir, S.; Yakir, R. H.; Dishi, O.; Gidron, O,; Jeffries-EL, M. “Exploring color space: an investigation of heteroaryl-substituted benzobis[1,2-d:4,5-d′]oxazoles and their application in organic light-emitting diodes” Materials Advances 2024; DOI:10.1039/D3MA01154B 

46. Wheeler, D.; Fischer Jr. ,L.; Friedrich, P.; Cunningham, C.; Muthike, A. L.; Aspuru-Guzik A.; Goodson III, T.; Jeffries-EL, M. “Carbazole subsituted benzobisoxazoles: near UV fluorescent emitters and am bipolar hosts for organic light-emitting diodes” J. Mater. Chem. C 2023; DOI:10.1039/D2TC03190F

45. Wheeler, D.; Tannir, S.; Smith E.; Tomlinson, A.; Jeffries-EL, M. “A computational and experimental investigation of deep-blue light-emitting tetraaryl-benzobis[1,2-d:4,5-d‘]oxazoles” Materials Advances 2022; DOI:

44. Gott-Betts, C. L.; Burney-Allen, A.; Wheeler, D.; Jeffries-EL, M. “Synthesis of Two-Dimensional Donor-Acceptor Copolymers Based on 2,3,6,7-tetra(thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]difuran and Their Performance in Polymer Solar Cells” Materials Advances 2022; DOI:

43. Burney-Allen, A.; Shaw, J; Wheeler, D.; Diodati, L; Duzhko, V; Tomlinson, A.; Jeffries-EL, M. “Benzobisoxazole cruciforms: A cross-conjugated platform for designing tunable donor/acceptor materials” Asian J. Org. Chem. 2021, 10, 215-223; DOI:10.1002/ajoc.202000502

42. Wheeler, D.; Diodati, A.; Tomlinson, A.; Jeffries-EL, M. “Evaluating the Role of Molecular Heredity on the Optical and Electronic Properties of Cross-Conjugated Benzo[1,2-d:4,5-d’]bisoxazoles” ACS Omega, 2020, 5, 21, 12374-12384. DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.0c01126

41. Muller, E.; Burney-Allen, A. A.; Shaw, J.; Wheeler, D.; Duzhko, V.; Jeffries-EL, M. “Synthesis of 1,6-Didecylnaphtho[1,2-b:5,6-b’]difuran-Based Copolymers by Direct Heteroarylation Polymerization” J. Polym. Sci2020; 58, 9, 1299-1310 DOI: 10.1002/pol.20200069

40. Chavez III, R.; Diodati, L.; Wheeler, D.; Shaw, J.; Tomlinson, A.; Jeffries-EL, M. “Evaluating the Impact of Fluorination on the Electro-optical Properties of Cross-Conjugated Benzobisoxazoles” J. Phys. Chem. A.2019. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpca.8b07778

39. Ifeanyi K. Madu; Evan W. Muller; Hyungjun Kim; Jessica Shaw; Alfred A. Burney-Allen; Paul Zimmerman; Malika Jeffries-EL; Theodore Goodson. “Heteroatom and Side Chain Effects on the Optical and Photophysical Properties: Ultrafast and Nonlinear Spectroscopy of New Naptho[1,2-b:5,6-b’]difuran Donor Polymers” J. Phys. Chem. C, 2018 . DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.8b03914

38. Intemann, J.J.; Hellerich, E.S.; Ewan, M. D.; Tlach, B.C.; Speetzen, E.D.; Shinar, R.; Shinar, J.; Jeffries-EL, M. “Investingating the impact of conjugation pathway on the physical and electronic properties of benzobisoxazole-containing polymers” J. Mater. Chem. C.2017, 5, 12839-12847. DOI:10.1039/c7tc04458e

37. Hale, B.J.; Elshobaki, M.; Gebhardt, R.; Wheeler, D.; Stoffer; J. Tomlinson, A.L.; Chaudhary, S.; Jeffries-EL, M. “Evaluating the influence of heteroatoms on the electronic properties of aryl[3,4-c]pyrroledione based copolymers“. Polymer, 2017, 109, 85–92. DOI: 10.1016/j.polymer.2016.12.013.

36. Chavez, R; Cai, M; Tlach, B.C.; Wheeler, D.L.; Kaudal, R; Tomlinson, A.L.; Shinar, R; Shinar, J.; and Jeffries-EL, M.* “Benzobisoxazole cruciforms: A tunable, cross-conjugated platform for the generation of deep blue OLED materials.” Mater. Chem C, 2016, 4, 3765-3773. DOI: 10.1039/C5TC03622D

35.  Bhuwalka, A.; Ewan, M.D.; Mike, J.F.; Elshobaki, M.; Chaudhary, S. and Jeffries-EL, M.* “Synthesis and photovoltaic properties of 2,6-bis(2-thienyl) benzobisazole and 4,8-bis(thienyl)-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]dithiophene copolymers”. Poly. Sci. A, 2016, 54, 316 – 324. DOI: 10.1002/pola.27793

34.  Bhuwalka, A.; Mike, J.J.; Intemann, J.J.; Ellern, A.; Jeffries-EL, M.* “A Versatile and Efficient Synthesis of Bithiophene-Based Dicarboxaldehydes.” Org. Biomol. Chem., 2015, 13, 9462-9470. DOI: 10.1039/c5ob01135c

  • For a highlight see “Bridged Bithiophene Building Block”. Synfacts 2015; 11(10): 1044. DOI: 1055/s-0035-1560294

33.  Bhuwalka, A.; Ewan, M.D.; Mike, J.F.; Elshobaki, M.; Kobilka, B.M.; Carr, J., Chen, Y., Chaudhary, S. and Jeffries-EL, M.* “Synthesis Characterization and Photovoltaic Properties of Dithenylbenzobisazole-Dithienosilole Copolymer. J. Poly. Sci. A, 2015, 53 (13), 1533 – 1540. DOI: 10.1002/pola.27603

32.  Jeffries-EL, M.*; Kobilka, B.M.; and Hale, B.J. “Optimizing the performance of conjugated polymers in organic photovoltaic cells by traversing group 16.” Macromolecules. 2014, 47(21), 7253-7271. DOI:10.1021/ma501236v. Invited Perspective.

31.  Tlach, B.C., Tomlinson, A.L., Morgan, K.D., Collins, C.R., and Jeffries-EL, M.* “Effect of Extended Conjugation on the Optoelectronic Properties Benzo[1,2-d:4,5-d′]bisoxazole Polymers“. Aust J. Chem. 2014, 67, 711-721. DOI:10.1071/CH13528 Invited manuscript for a special issue on physical organic chemistry.

30.  Kobilka, B.M., Hale, B.J., Ewan, M.D., Dubrovskiy, A.V., Nelson, T.L., Duzhko, V. and Jeffries-EL, M.*Influence of heteroatoms on photovoltaic performance of donor-acceptor copolymers based on 2,6-di(thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]difurans and diketopyrrolopyrrole”. Polym. Chem 2013, 4, 5329-5336. DOI:10.1039/C3PY00138E Invited manuscript for a special issue on conjugated polymers.

29.  Balaji,G., Esfahani, M.S., Joshi, P., Bhattacharaya, J., Jeffries-EL, M., Dalal, V.* “Synthesis and Photovoltaic Properties of a Furan-Diketopyrrolopyrrole-Fluorene Terpolymer” Eur. Polym. J., 2013, 49, 3921-3928. DOI: 10.1016/j.eurpolymj.2013.08.021

28.  Hellerich, E.S., Intemann, J.J., Cai, M. Liu, R., Ewan, M.D. Tlach, B.C., Jeffries-EL, M. Shinar, R.* and Shinar, J. “ Fluorescent polymer guest: small molecule host solution-processed OLEDs”. J. Mater. C 2013, 1, 5191-5199. DOI:10.1039/C3TC31019A

27.  Tlach, B.C., Tomlinson, A.L., Ryno, A., Knoble, D. and Jeffries-EL, M* “Influence of Conjugation Axis on the Optical and Electronic Properties of Aryl-Substituted Benzobisoxazoles.” J. Org. Chem. 2013, 78 (13), 6570–6581. DOI: 10.1021/jo4007927.

26.  Hinkens, D.M., Chen, Q, Siddiki, M.K., Gosztola, D., Tapsak, M., Qiao, Q., Jeffries-EL, M., Darling, S.B.* Model Compounds based on Poly(p-phenylenevinyleneborane) and Terthiophene:Investigating the p-n  Junction in Diblock Copolymers. Polymer, 2013, 54, 3510-3520. DOI:10.1016/j.polymer.2013.05.008

25.  Intemann, J. J.; Mike, J. F.; Cai, M.; Xiao, T.; Shinar, R.; Shinar J.S; Jeffries-EL, M.* “Synthesis, Characterization and Electroluminescence Properties of Poly(fluorenevinylene benzobisthiazoles).” J. Poly. Sci. A., 2013, 51, 916-923. DOI: 10.1002/pola.26449

24.  Intemann, J.J.; Hellerich, E.S.; Tlach, B.C.; Ewan, M.D. Barnes, C.A.; Bhuwalka, A.; Cai, M.; Shinar, J.; Shinar, R. and Jeffries-EL, M.* “Altering the Conjugation Pathway for Improved Performance of Benzobisoxazole-Based Polymer Guest Emitters in PLEDs.“ Macromolecules, 2012, 45, 6888-6897. DOI: 10.1021/ma300821m.

23.  Kobilka, B. M.; Dubrovskiy, A. V.; Ewan, M. D.; Tomlinson, A. L.; Larock, R. C.; Chaudhary, S.; Jeffries-El, M.*: “Synthesis of 3,7-diiodo-2,6-di(thiophen-2-yl)benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b’]difurans: functional building blocks for the design of new conjugated polymers.” Chem. Commun. 2012, 48, 8919-8921. 10.1039/C2CC34070D.- Invited manuscript for a special issue on aromaticity.

22.  Klimavicz, J.S.; Mike, J.F.; Bhuwalka, A; Tomlinson, A.L.; Jeffries-EL, M.* “Synthesis of Benzobisoxazole Based D−π-A−π-D Organic Chromophores with Variable Optical and Electronic Properties.” Pure Appl. Chem., 2012, 84, (4), 991-1004. DOI:10.1351/PAC-CON-11-10-23. Invited manuscript for a special issue for the 14th International Symposium on Novel Aromatic Compounds (ISNA-14), Eugene, USA, 24–29 July 2011.

21.  Bhuwalka, A.; Mike, J. F.; He, M. Intemann, J.J.; Nelson, T.; Ewan, M.D.; Roggers, R.A.; Lin, Z.; Jeffries-EL, M*. “Quaterthiophene-Benzobisazole Copolymers for Photovoltaic Cells: Effect of Heteroatom Placement and Substitution on the Optical and Electronic Properties.“ Macromolecules, 2011, 44 (24), 9611 -– 9617. DOI: 10.1021/ma202133e.

20.  Tlach, B.C.; Tomlinson, A.L.; Bhuwalka, A.; Jeffries-EL, M.* “Tuning the Optical and Electronic Properties of 4,8-Disubstituted Benzobisoxazoles via Alkynyl Substitution.” J. Org. Chem, 2011, 76 (21), 8670 ­– 8681. DOI: 10.1021/jo201078w.

19.  Mike, J. F.; Intemann, J.J.; Cai, M.; Xiao, T.; Shinar, R.; Shinar, J.; Jeffries-EL, M.* Efficient Synthesis of Benzobisazole Terpolymers Containing Thiophene and Fluorene. Polym. Chem. 2011, 2, 2299 – 2305. DOI: 10.1039/C1PY00218J.

18.  Zhao, L.; Pang, X.; Adhikary, R.; Petrich, J.; Jeffries-EL, M. and Lin, Z.* “Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposites by Placing Conjugated Polymers in Intimate Contact with Quantum Rods.” Adv. Mater. 2011, 23, 2844 – 2849. DOI: 10.1002/adma.201100923.

17.  Mike, J F.; Nalwa, K.; Makowski, A. J.; Putnam, D.; Tomlinson A.; Chaudhary, S. and Jeffries-EL, M.* “Synthesis, Characterization and Photovoltaic Properties of Poly(thiophenevinylene) Benzobisoxazoles.” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2011, 13, 1338 – 1344. DOI:10.1039/C0CP00353K

16.  Intemann, J. J.; Mike, J. F.; Cai, M.; Bose, S.; Xiao, T.; Mauldin T.; Shinar, J.; Shinar, R.; Jeffries-EL, M.* “Synthesis and Characterization of Poly (9,9-dialkylfluorenevinylene benzobisoxazoles): New Solution Processable Electron-Accepting Conjugated Polymers.” Macromolecules, 2011, 44 (2) 248 – 255. DOI:10.1021/ma102010s.

15.  Mike, J. F.; Makowski, A.; Jeffries-EL, M.* “Synthesis and Characterization of Organic-Soluble Poly(Phenylenevinylene)Benzobisoxazoles.” J. Poly. Sci. A, 2010, 48 (6), 1456 – 1460. DOI:10.1002/pola.23886.

14.  Mike, J. F.; Makowski, A.; Ellern, A.; Jeffries-EL, M.* “Facile Synthesis of 2,6-Disubstituted Benzobisthiazoles: Functional Monomers for the Design of Organic Semiconductors.” J.Org. Chem., 2010, 75(2), 495 – 497. DOI: 10.1021/jo9023864

  • For a highlight see: Mike, J. F.; Makowski, A.; Ellern, A.; Jeffries-EL, M. “Versatile Monomers for Conjugated Polymer Synthesis”. Synfacts, 2010, 4, 0419.

13.  Byun, M.; Laskowski, R.; Qiu, F.; Jeffries-EL, M.; Lin, Z. “Hierarchically Structured Regioregular Conjugated Polymer Patterns via Controlled Evaporative Self-Assembly.” Soft. Mat., 2009, 5 (8), 1585 – 1586. DOI: 10.1039/b822998h.

12.  Mike, J. F.; Makowski, A.; Jeffries-EL, M.* “An Efficient Synthesis of 2,6-Disubstituted Benzobisoxazoles: New Building Blocks for Organic Semiconductors.” Org. Lett., 2008, 10(21), 4915 – 4918. DOI: 10.1021/ol802011y.

  • For a highlight see: Mike, J. F.; Makowski, A.; Jeffries-EL, M, ChemInform 40 (12), 12-183, 2009.

11.  Xu, J.; Wang, J.; Mitchell, M.; Mukherjee, P.; Jeffries-EL, M.; Petrich, J.; Lin, Z. “Organic-Inorganic Nanocomposites via Directly Grafting Conjugated Polymers onto Quantum Dots.” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2007, 129(42), 12828 – 12833. DOI: 10.1021/ja074133x


  • From postdoctoral appointment

10.  Bhatt, M.P.; Magurudeniya, H.D.; Sista, P.; Sheina, E.E.;Jeffries-EL, M.; Janesko,*  McCullough, R.D; and Stefan, M.C. “Role of the transition metal in Grignard metathesis polymerization (GRIM) of 3-hexylthiophene.” J. Mater. Chem. A, 2013, 1, 12841-12849. DOI: 10.1039/C3TA13258G

9.  Iovu, M.C.; Jeffries-EL, M; Sheina, E.E.; McCullough, R.D. “Conducting Regioregular Polythiophene Block Copolymer Nanofibrils Synthesized by Reversible Addition Fragmentation Chain Transfer Polymerization (RAFT) and Nitroxide Mediated Polymerization (NMP).” Macromolecules, 2007, 40 (14) 4733 – 4735. DOI: 10.1021/ma070406x

8.  Li, B.; Santhanam, S.; Schultz, L.; Jeffries-EL, M.; Iovu, M.C.; Sauvé, G.; Cooper, J.; Zhang, R.; Revelli, J.C.; Kusne, A.G.; Snyder, J.L; Kowalewski, T.; Weiss, L.E.; McCullough, R.D.; Fedder, G.K.; Lambeth, D.N. “Inkjet Printed Chemical Sensor Array Based on Polythiophene Conductive Polymers.” Sensors and Actuators B. Chemical, 2007, 123(2), 651 – 660. DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2006.09.064.

7.  Widge, A.S.; Jeffries-EL, M.; Cui, X.; Lagenaur, C.F.; Matsuoka, Y. “Self-Assembled Monolayers of Polythiophene Conductive Polymers Improve Both Biocompatibility and Electrical Impedance of Neural Electrodes.” Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 2007, 22, 1723 – 1732. DOI:10.1016/j.bios.2006.08.011.

6.  Iovu, M.C.; Jeffries-EL, M.; Zhang, R.; Kowalewski, T.; McCullough, R.D. “Conducting Block Copolymer Nanowires Containing Regioregular Poly(3-Hexylthiophene) and Polystyrene.” J. Macromol. Sci., Part A, 2006, 41, 1991 – 2000. DOI: 10.1080/10601320600997906.

5.  Li, B.; Iovu, M.C.; Jeffries-EL, M.; Sauvé, G.; Zhang, R.; Cooper, J.; Santhanam, S.; Schultz, L.; Revelli, J.C.; Kusne, A.G.; Kowalewski, T.; Snyder, J.L.; Weiss, L.E.; Fedder, G.K; McCullough, R.D.; Lambeth, D.N. “Volatile Organic Compound Detection using Nanostructured Copolymers.” Nano Lett., 2006, 6(8), 1598 – 1602. DOI: 10.1021/nl060498o.

4.  Zhang, R.; Li, B.; Iovu, M.C.; Jeffries-EL, M.; Sauve, G.; Cooper, J.; Jia, S.-J.; Tristam-Nagle, S.; Smilgies, D.M.; Lambeth, D.N.; McCullough, R.D.; Kowalewski, T. “Nanostructure Dependence of Field-Effect Mobility in Regioregular Poly(3-hexylthiophene) Thin Film Field Effect Transistors.” J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2006, 128(11) 3480 – 3481. DOI: 10.1021/ja055192i

3.  Jeffries-EL, M.; Sauvé, G.; McCullough, R.D. “Facile synthesis of end-functionalized regioregular poly(3-alkylthiophene)s via modified Grignard metathesis reaction.” Macromolecules, 2005, 38, 10346 – 10352. DOI: 10.1021/ma051096q.

2.  Iovu, M.C.; Jeffries-EL, M.; Sheina, E.E.; Cooper, J.R.; McCullough, R.D. “Regioregular Poly(3-alkylthiophene) Conducting Block Copolymers.” Polymer, 2005, 46 (19), 8582 – 8586. DOI:10.1016/j.polymer.2005.05.035.

1.  Jeffries-EL, M.; Sauvé, G.; McCullough, R.D. “In-situ End Group Functionalization of Regioregular Poly (3-alkylthiophene) using the Grignard Metathesis Polymerization Method.” Adv. Mat., 2004, 16, 1017 – 1019. DOI: 10.1002/adma.200400137.