Lifestyle Factors

Publications under ‘Lifestyle Factors’ examine the association of characteristics or ways of life (diet, smoking, exercise etc.) with fertility and reproductive outcomes. 

Hatch EE, Wise LA, Mikkelsen EM, Christensen T, Riis AH, Sørensen HT, Rothman KJ. Caffeinated beverage and soda consumption and time to pregnancy. Epidemiology 2012; 23(3): 393-401.

In a study of Danish pregnancy planners, caffeine intake of ≥300 mg per day (vs. <100 mg per day) and coffee intake of ≥3 servings per day (vs. none) were not associated with lower fecundability. However, soda consumption was associated with lower fecundability, and tea drinking was associated with slightly higher fecundability.

Wise LA, Rothman KJ, Mikkelsen EM, Sørensnen HT, Riis AH, Hatch EE. A prospective cohort study of physical activity and time to pregnancy. Fertil Steril 2012; 97(5): 1136-42.

In a study of Danish pregnancy planners, vigorous physical activity was associated with reduced fecundability among women with BMI <25 kg/m2. Moderate physical activity was associated with increased fecundability among all women regardless of BMI.

Radin RG, Hatch EE, Rothman KJ, Mikkelsen EM, Sørensen HT, Riis AH, Wise LA. Active and passive smoking and fecundability in Danish pregnancy planners. Fertil Steril 2014; 102(1): 183-191.

High cumulative exposure to active smoking (≥10 pack-years) was associated with lower fecundability in both current and former regular smokers compared with women who never smoked. Exposure to passive smoking (“secondhand smoke”) in early life, adolescence, and adulthood was not associated with fecundability among women who never smoked.

Hahn KA, Wise LA, Rothman KJ, Mikkelsen EM, Brogly SB, Sørensen HT, Riis AH, Hatch EE. Caffeine and caffeinated beverage consumption and risk of spontaneous abortion. Hum Reprod 2015; 30(5): 1246-55.

Caffeine consumption before conception was not associated with increased risk of miscarriage. Caffeine consumption during early pregnancy was associated with a small increased risk of miscarriage.

McKinnon CJ, Hatch EE, Rothman KJ, Mikkelsen EM, Wesselink AK, Hahn KA, Wise LA. Body mass index, physical activity and fecundability in a North American preconception cohort study. Fertil Steril 2016; 106(2): 451-9.

In a study of North American pregnancy planners, women with BMI ≥35 kg/m2 had lower fecundability than women with BMI 18.5-24 kg/m2. Higher waist-to-hip ratio and waist circumference were also associated with lower fecundability. Vigorous physical activity was associated with higher fecundability among overweight and obese women only. Moderate physical activity was associated with higher fecundability among all women.

Mikkelsen EM, Riis AH, Wise LA, Hatch EE, Rothman KJ, Cueto HT, Sørensen HT. Alcohol consumption and fecundability: prospective Danish cohort study. BMJ 2016; 354: i4262.

Compared with no alcohol consumption, consuming up to 13 alcoholic drinks on average per week was not strongly associated with fecundability. However, this study did not assess the impact of binge drinking.

Wesselink AK, Wise LA, Rothman KJ, Hahn KA, Mikkelsen EM, Mahalingaiah S, Hatch EE. Caffeine and caffeinated beverage consumption and fecundability in a preconception cohort. Reprod Toxicol 2016; 62: 39-45.

In a study of North American pregnancy planners, high caffeine consumption by the male partner, particularly from caffeinated soda and energy drinks, was associated with lower fecundability. Caffeine consumption by the female partner was not associated with fecundability.

Wise LA, Wesselink AK, Hatch EE, Rothman KJ, Mikkelsen EM, Sørensen HT, Mahalingaiah S. Marijuana use and fecundability in a North American preconception cohort study. J Epidemiol Commun Health 2017; 72(3): 208-215.

Marijuana use by the male or female partner was not appreciably associated with fecundability.

Wesselink AK, Hatch EE, Rothman KJ, Mikkelsen EM, Aschengrau A, Wise LA. Prospective study of cigarette smoking and fecundability. Hum Reprod 2019; 34(3): 558-567.

Women who were current smokers, particularly those who had smoked ≥10 cigarettes/day for ≥10 years, had lower fecundability than women who never smoked. Current smoking by the male partner and passive smoking (“secondhand smoking”) in either partner were not associated with reduced fecundability.

Willis SK, Hatch EE, Wesselink AK, Rothman KJ, Mikkelsen EM, Wise LA. Female sleep patterns, shift work, and fecundability in a North American preconception cohort study. Fertil Steril 2019; 111(6): 1201-1210.e1.

Women who had trouble sleeping at night had slightly lower fecundability than women who did not have trouble sleeping at night. Shift work was not associated with fecundability.

Harlow AF, Hatch EE, Wesselink AK, Rothman KJ, Wise LA. E-Cigarettes and fecundability: Results from a prospective preconception cohort study. Am J Epidemiol 2021; 190(3): 353-361.

Women who were current e-cigarette smokers had lower fecundability than women who never used e-cigarettes, after accounting for smoking of combustible cigarettes.