Module 5: Educational Support & Transition from School

Learning Objectives for Module 5:

    1. Define a least restrictive environment (LRE) and introduce the levels of special educational support across school settings (e.g., public, residential) for youth diagnosed on the autism spectrum in accordance with the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) of 2004.
    2. Define an individualized education program (IEP)  and Transition Plan in support of transition age youth diagnosed on the autism spectrum, including higher education or vocational planning.
    3. Introduce the role of  functional behavior assessment (FBA) in supporting transition age youth diagnosed on the autism spectrum, specific to the school setting.
    4. Identify therapies that are provided  in the school setting and how they support the health and well-being of transition age youth diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, including speech language pathology (SLP), occupational therapy (OT), physical therapy (PT), applied behavior analysis (ABA), and social skills groups.

      Module 5 PowerPoint Slides:

      This module includes a video on supporting youth through the school transition by Ivys Fernández-Pastrana, JD.


      Read more about the Individualized Education Program (IEP) here (Department of Education).

      Read more about post-secondary educational opportunities for youth diagnosed with ASD here (Autism Speaks).

      Articles on Educational Support for TAY diagnosed with ASD/ID:

      Transition Planning Reviews/Recommendations:

      Cameto, R., Levine, P., & Wagner, M. (2004). Transition Planning for Students with Disabilities: A Special Topic Report of Findings from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2 (NLTS2). National Center for Special Education Research.

      Hendricks, D. R., & Wehman, P. (2009). Transition from school to adulthood for youth with autism spectrum disorders: Review and recommendations. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities.

      Kohler, P. D. (1996). Taxonomy for Transition Programming: Linking Research and Practice.

      Lee, G. K., & Carter, E. W. (2012). Preparing Transition‐Age Students with High‐Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders for Meaningful Work. Psychology in the Schools, 49(10), 988-1000.

      Nicholas, D. B., Attridge, M., Zwaigenbaum, L., & Clarke, M. (2015). Vocational support approaches in autism spectrum disorder: A synthesis review of the literature. Autism, 19(2), 235-245.

      Schall, C., Wehman, P., & McDonough, J. L. (2012). Transition from school to work for students with autism spectrum disorders: understanding the process and achieving better outcomes. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 59(1), 189-202.

      Shogren, K. A., & Plotner, A. J. (2012). Transition planning for students with intellectual disability, autism, or other disabilities: Data from the National Longitudinal Transition Study-2. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities, 50(1), 16-30.

      Test, D. W., Fowler, C., & Kohler, P. (2016). Evidence-based practices and predictors in secondary transition: What we know and what we still need to know. Charlotte, NC: National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center.

      Wehman, P., Schall, C., Carr, S., Targett, P., West, M., & Cifu, G. (2014). Transition from school to adulthood for youth with autism spectrum disorder: What we know and what we need to know. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 25(1), 30-40.

      Caregiver/Family Attitudes/Coping:

      Hall, H. R. (2012). Families of children with autism: Behaviors of children, community support and coping. Issues In Comprehensive Pediatric Nursing, 35(2), 111-132.

      Lai, W. W., Goh, T. J., Oei, T. P., & Sung, M. (2015). Coping and well-being in parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 45(8), 2582-2593.


      Chou, Y. C., Wehmeyer, M. L., Palmer, S. B., & Lee, J. (2016). Comparisons of self-determination among students with autism, intellectual disability, and learning disabilities: A multivariate analysis. Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 32(2), 124-132.

      Wehmeyer, M. L., Palmer, S. B., Shogren, K., Williams-Diehm, K., & Soukup, J. H. (2013). Establishing a causal relationship between intervention to promote self-determination and enhanced student self-determination. The Journal of Special Education, 46(4), 195-210.

      Wehmeyer, M. L., Shogren, K. A., Zager, D., Smith, T. E., & Simpson, R. (2010). Research-based principles and practices for educating students with autism: Self-determination and social interactions. Education and Training in Autism and Developmental Disabilities, 475-486.

      Transition Planning Inventory:

      Rehfeldt, J. D., Clark, G. M., & Lee, S. W. (2012). The effects of using the transition planning inventory and a structured IEP process as a transition planning intervention on IEP meeting outcomes. Remedial and Special Education, 33(1), 48-58.