Physics embedded deep learning

Reliable deep learning-based phase imaging with uncertainty quantification
Yujia Xue, Shiyi Cheng, Yunzhe Li, Lei Tian
Optica 6, 618-629 (2019).

Emerging deep-learning (DL)-based techniques have significant potential to revolutionize biomedical imaging. However, one outstanding challenge is the lack of reliability assessment in the DL predictions, whose errors are commonly revealed only in hindsight. Here, we propose a new Bayesian convolutional neural network (BNN)-based framework that overcomes this issue by quantifying the uncertainty of DL predictions. Foremost, we show that BNN-predicted uncertainty maps provide surrogate estimates of the true error from the network model and measurement itself. The uncertainty maps characterize imperfections often unknown in real-world applications, such as noise, model error, incomplete training data, and out-of-distribution testing data. Quantifying this uncertainty provides a per-pixel estimate of the confidence level of the DL prediction as well as the quality of the model and data set. We demonstrate this framework in the application of large space–bandwidth product phase imaging using a physics-guided coded illumination scheme. From only five multiplexed illumination measurements, our BNN predicts gigapixel phase images in both static and dynamic biological samples with quantitative credibility assessment. Furthermore, we show that low-certainty regions can identify spatially and temporally rare biological phenomena. We believe our uncertainty learning framework is widely applicable to many DL-based biomedical imaging techniques for assessing the reliability of DL predictions.

 

Deep speckle correlation: a deep learning approach towards scalable imaging through scattering media
Yunzhe Li, Yujia Xue, Lei Tian
Optica 5, 1181-1190 (2018).

Imaging through scattering is an important yet challenging problem. Tremendous progress has been made by exploiting the deterministic input–output “transmission matrix” for a fixed medium. However, this “one-to-one” mapping is highly susceptible to speckle decorrelations – small perturbations to the scattering medium lead to model errors and severe degradation of the imaging performance. Our goal here is to develop a new framework that is highly scalable to both medium perturbations and measurement requirement. To do so, we propose a statistical “one-to-all” deep learning (DL) technique that encapsulates a wide range of statistical variations for the model to be resilient to speckle decorrelations. Specifically, we develop a convolutional neural network (CNN) that is able to learn the statistical information contained in the speckle intensity patterns captured on a set of diffusers having the same macroscopic parameter. We then show for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that the trained CNN is able to generalize and make high-quality object predictions through an entirely different set of diffusers of the same class. Our work paves the way to a highly scalable DL approach for imaging through scattering media.

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