Soft X-Ray Emission Spectroscopy


In the x-ray emission experiment, a solid is illuminated with a monochromatic beam of x-rays.  These excite core electrons from the system.  The resulting core holes are filled by the radiative transition of valence band electrons, with the emission of a fluorescent x-ray photon.  The energy of these emitted photons is then measured using a grating spectrometer.


  • hν = 50 ~ 1500 eV
  • Bulk sensitive (~ 1000 Å), so no need for large crystals, or clean ordered surfaces
  • Atomic and chemical specific
  • Strong dipole selection rules means the fluorescent spectrum reflects the occupied valence band partial density of states
  • Operational in external fields and (windowed) liquid environments