The Movement & Applied Imaging Lab is located in downtown Boston and provides an 1100 ft2 state-of-the-art facility for our research studies. The Lab includes space for the technologies described below and multiple workstations for data processing.



3-D Motion Capture System

Our lab is equipped with a 15-camera Qualisys motion capture system that includes:

  • 12 Oqus7+ cameras that can capture at a resolution up to 12 Megapixels a@ 300 fps with passive retroreflective markers.
  • 1 Oqus 210c full HD video camera that can capture at a resolution of 2 Megapixels @ 24 fps, synchronized with Oqus7+ cameras. This camera also provides an overlay video of the marker and video images.
  • 2 Sony full HD video cameras

Portable 3-D  Motion Capture System

A separate 8-camera portable motion capture system is available for kinematic analyses of movements at remote locations. The system includes Qualisys Miqus M3 cameras that can capture at a resolution up to 2 Megapixels at 340 fps.

Force Platforms

There are 5 floor imbedded force platforms (AMTI, Inc.), each measuring 600 mm x 900 mm. These force platforms offer COP accuracy up to 0.4 mm and measurement accuracy up to ±0.25% of the applied calibration load. Two of the platforms are on mobile bases allowing translation for custom force platform arrangements. The force platform data are synchronized with the motion capture system.

Force Plate Mounted Staircase

Stair ascent and descent can be analyzed with a portable staircase that gets mounted to the force plates and includes a landing area. Kinetic data can be capture from 3 consecutive stair steps.

Surface Electromyography (EMG)

A wireless EMG system (Trigno system, Delsys) is available for capturing muscle activity from up to 16 channels synchronized with the motion and force plate data. The Trigno™ system includes 16 regular sensors and 6 mini-sensors for use with smaller muscles or under orthotics. 

EMG-Driven Musculoskeletal Modeling

methods_emg drive modeling

The EMG-Driven model is used to estimate subject-specific knee joint contact forces. The modeling technique is implemented in collaboration with the University of Delaware. Read more here and here.

Inertial Motion Capture System

The Trigno™ sensors include an inertial measurement unit (IMU) consisting of triaxial accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer to quantify movements without the need for camera-based motion capture systems. 

Timing System

A wireless timing system (Brower Timing Systems) is used to measure speed during various functional activities in the lab space.


MR imaging studies are performed at the new research-dedicated 3.0 Tesla MRI (Siemens PRISMA) at the Center for Integrated Life Sciences & Engineering (CILSE) located across the street from the Movement & Applied Imaging Lab. The scanner is equipped with an 18-channel surface coil for hip imaging and a 15-channel knee coil.

Radiography studies are performed at the outpatient Sports Medicine clinic at the Ryan Center, down the street from the Movement & Applied Imaging Laboratory. The BU Shuttle operates between the Ryan Center and the MAI Lab sites.

Cartilage MR Imaging


Advanced MR imaging is used to assess the morphology and composition of articular and meniscus cartilage. These include T1ρ and T2 relaxation times, and clinical scoring of cartilage and other articular tissues. 

Muscle MR Imaging


Standard T1-w MR imaging is used to quantify muscle anatomical cross-sectional area. Water/fat MR imaging techniques are used to quantify the muscle adiposity.



Clinical and research radiographic images are used to quantify hip and knee anatomy. Examples include Semi-flexed PA views for Kellgren-Lawrence grading, Long limb view for mechanical axis, and frog-leg views for hip alpha angle.


Muscle Performance


Muscle strength and endurance is assessed with a Biodex dynamometer (Biodex Medical Systems Inc.).

Physical Performance

Validated and population appropriate functional tests are used. Examples include single-leg hop for distance, timed up and go test, stair climbing test, 6 minute walk test, etc.

Patient-Reported Outcomes

Validated and population appropriate outcome measures are collected using REDcap database system. Examples include Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS), International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Tegner Activity Scale, NIH PROMIS scores, etc.


Activity Quantification

We are working with multiple technologies to capture physical activity, heart rate, sleep, and biomechanical data remotely from users in real-world environments.

Ecological Momentary Assessments (EMA) and smartphone applications

We have developed smartphone applications in collaborations with the BU Software & Application Innovation Lab to collect and display data from the devices described above and patient-reported measures (e.g. knee pain, mood, sleep, etc.) for use in clinical trials for knee osteoarthritis.


  • QTM (Qualisys AB) software is used for collecting motion capture, force platform, EMG, and IMU data.
  • Visual3D (C-Motion, Inc.) software is used for processing of the movement data.
  • Matlab, OsiriX, and ImageJ software are used for image processing.
  • Balsamiq softweare is used for mobile app design.
  • REDcap and Python are used for data management.