Methods

Biomechanics

3-D Movement Analysis: Using small reflective markers placed around the body, a Qualisys motion capture system is used to track movement. In addition to tracking human movement with reflective markers (kinematics), forces applied on the body (kinetics) are measured using AMTI force plates.

 

 

methods_electromyographyEMG-Driven Musculoskeletal Modeling: The modeling technique is implemented in collaboration with the University of Delaware. Data will be collected at BU and processed at UD. The input is joint position, joint moments, and EMG. The output is muscle forces and joint loads.

Project5Electromyography: Surface EMG data are collected sync with the kinetic and kinematic data using a wireless EMG system (Delsys Inc.).

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Community-based quantification of activity: Commercial devices are used to track physical activity in the community.

 

 

Imaging

methods_cartilage MR imaging

Cartilage MR ImagingAdvanced MR imaging is used to assess the morphology and composition of articular and meniscus cartilage. These include T1ρ and T2 relaxation times, and clinical scoring of cartilage and other articular tissues. These resources are under development in collaboration with the Center for Biomedical Imaging at BU.

 

Knee MRIMuscle MR ImagingStandard T1-w MR imaging is used to quantify muscle anatomical cross-sectional area. Water/fat MR imaging techniques are used to quantify the muscle adiposity. These resources are under development in collaboration with the Center for Biomedical Imaging at BU.

 

KL GradesRadiography
Clinical and research radiographic images are used to quantify hip and knee anatomy. Examples include Semi-flexed PA views for Kellgren-Lawrence grading, Long limb view for mechanical axis, and frog-leg views for hip alpha angle.

 

Patient-Reported and Performance-based Outcomes

biodex
Muscle PerformanceMuscle strength and endurance is assessed with a Biodex dynamometer (Biodex Medical Systems Inc.).

 

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Functional PerformanceValidated and population appropriate functional tests are used. Examples include single-leg hop for distance, timed up and go test, stair climbing test, 6 minute walk test, etc.

 

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Patient-Reported Outcome MeasuresValidated and population appropriate outcome measures are used. Examples include Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Hip Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (HOOS), International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), Tegner Activity Scale, NIH PROMIS scores, etc.